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  1. The Ten Books on Architecture
  2. Medical Ethics: Past, Present and Future
  4. Medicine in ancient Rome - Wikipedia

The Ten Books on Architecture

Hippocrates believed that mental illnesses can be treated more effectively if they are handled in a similar manner to physical medical conditions According to Hippocrates, the diagnosis and treatment of mental and physical diseases is based on observation, consideration of the causes, balance of theory and on the four liquids, blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile The role of music and theater in the treatment of physical and mental illnesses and the improvement of human behavior was essential.

It was believed that healing the soul through music also healed the body, and there were specific musical applications for certain diseases. For instance, the alternating sound of the flute and harp served as a treatment for gout. Also rational mood swings, sleep duration, dreams, appetite, thirst, nausea, location and severity of pain, chills, coughing, sneezing, belching, flatulence, convulsions, nosebleeds, even menstrual changes were recorded.

The physical examination required great attention to be given to fever, respiration, paralysis and color of the limbs, pain on palpation, stool, urine, sputum and vomit. The overall assessment of these recordings interpreted the final diagnosis and determined the type of treatment of the disease. Moreover, Schiefsky mentions that the key area of Hippocratic medicine was the precision or the details of prognosis and the reliability of prognostic signs According to a recent Greek review, the Hippocratic physician had to examine a patient, observe symptoms carefully, make a diagnosis and then treat the patient Therefore, Hippocrates established the basics of clinical medicine as it is practiced today.

He introduced numerous medical terms universally used by physicians, including symptom, diagnosis, therapy, trauma and sepsis. In addition, he described a great number of diseases without superstition. Their names are still used in modern medicine, for instance diabetes, gastritis, enteritis, arthritis, cancer, eclampsia, coma, paralysis, mania, panic, hysteria, epilepsy and many others. Accordingly, Hippocrates greatly contributed to modern medicine by declaring that medicine should depend on detailed observation, reason and experience in order to establish diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

Obviously, after Hippocrates there was no longer a mixture of superstition, magic, religious views and empirical treatments examined by priest-physicians, and medicine became a real science through accumulating experience Mental and physical cares were provided parallel to one another, regardless of whether the disease came from the soul or the body. Overall, Hippocrates set the stepping stones for the foundations of medicine, developing medical terms and definitions, protocols and guidelines for the classification of diseases, which are considered the gold standards for the diagnosis, management and prevention of diseases.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Med Ethics Hist Med. Christos F.

Medical Ethics: Past, Present and Future

Kleisiaris , 1 Chrisanthos Sfakianakis , 2 and Ioanna V. Papathanasiou 3. Ioanna V. Find articles by Ioanna V. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding Author: Ioanna V. Received Aug 7; Accepted Feb Kleisiaris et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3. A literature review was carried out using browser methods in international databases.

The descendants of Asclepius, who continued in the art of medicine and healing, were known as the Asclepiads. Machaon, for example, helped Menelaos when he was wounded in the Trojan War , but the most famous doctor of the family was undoubtedly Hippocrates. Asclepius met a tragic end when he was killed by a thunderbolt thrown by Zeus.

What Is Myth? Crash Course World Mythology #1

Asclepius himself was deified following his death , and in some local myths he also became the constellation Ophiuchus. The god was particularly worshipped at the sanctuary of Epidaurus founded in the 6th century BCE , known as the Asklepieion, because he was believed to have been born on the nearby Mt. The site, the most important healing centre in the ancient world, was visited from all over Greece by those seeking alleviation of their ailments by either divine intervention or medicines administered by the resident priests and it had many important buildings.

These included a large temple BCE which contained a larger than life-size statue of Asclepius by Thrasymedes and the Thymele BCE - a round marble building which had a mysterious underground labyrinth , perhaps containing snakes. These were associated with Asklepius and symbolised regeneration, as snakes were thought to live both below and above ground and were also connected to prophecy as they knew the hidden secrets below ground.

At Epidaurus there was also the columned Abato or Enkoimeterion in which patients, after having gone through several purification rituals, slept overnight and awaited dreams where the god would appear and offer cures and remedies. The cures would then later be self-administered or carried out by resident priests in the more complex cases. Thankful patients often left votive offerings at the site, sometimes depicting the body part which had been cured.

The site also had a seat theatre BCE which is the best preserved theatre in Greece and still in use today. Epiduarus was also the site of the pan - Hellenic Asklepieia festival, founded in the 5th century BCE and held every four years to celebrate theatre, sport, and music in honour of Asclepius. The site continued to be important in Roman times, and several buildings were added in the 2nd century CE under the auspices of the Roman senator Antonius.

Tradition said that a priest named Telemachos brought the god to the site in the form of a sacred snake in BCE. Strabo also mentions that the oldest sanctuary to Asclepius was at Tricca, where in some accounts the god was born, but the site has never been discovered. Messene does, however, have important archaeological remains attesting to the popularity of its Asclepian sanctuary in Hellenistic times.


Other sacred sites were located on the island of Kos which also had an important school of physicians from the 5th century BCE, on, and at Tegea. The cult of Asclepius was also transferred to Pergamon sometime in the 4th century BCE, possibly by a healed patient at Epidaurus named Archias. Finally, in BCE the Romans were said to have taken the sacred snake from Epidaurus to the Tiber Island in order to cure a plague, although there is evidence of the cult of Asclepius on the Italian mainland from as early as the 5th century BCE.

In ancient Greek art, Asclepius was portrayed in sculpture , on pottery , in mosaics, and on coins. Almost always, the god has a full beard, wears a simple himation robe, and holds a staff the bakteria with a sacred snake coiled around it. The god was also associated with three types of tree: the cypress, pine, and olive.

Editorial Review This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication. Free download. He saw to it that his son was educated to a high standard in the classic Greek fields of geometry, philosophy, logic, and literature.

He also taught his son not to mindlessly follow any one school of thought, but to think for himself and judge every issue on its individual merits. Although Galen believed Asclepius came to his aid, he also came to believe there was only one God. This made the later Christian and Muslim worlds much more receptive to his work.

His father had a dream in which the Greek god of medicine, Asclepius, told him Galen must divert his efforts to medicine and healing. Nicon was not one to disobey the gods; Galen immediately dropped out of his logic and philosophy classes in favor of medicine. For the rest of his life, Galen believed that Asclepius came to help him whenever he was badly in need of help. Although he spent most of his time on medical work, Galen continued to think about philosophy. He believed the best physicians mixed philosophy with medicine. His father Nicon died and left Galen a large amount of money.

Galen, who was almost 20 years old, decided it was time to spread his wings. He traveled around the Mediterranean learning the latest techniques in medicine and healing. Galen disliked almost every aspect of life in Alexandria, except for what he could learn there. He returned to Pergamon aged 28 or He had been in danger of becoming an eternal student — if you are rich and enjoy learning as much as Galen did, you can always find more to learn.

Galen returned to Pergamon as an elite physician. He had spent 12 years learning all of the different doctrines of ancient medicine from around the Mediterranean. He had seen ineffective techniques and effective techniques, and now applied his own skills to developing a range of effective methods. He chose to work in an area where you could not hide from your mistakes.

According to Galen, his four years in this practice enabled him to learn even more about medicine. The relationship between diet and health is not only a recent issue: Galen identified the importance of a healthy diet for the well-being of the gladiators in his care. He learned the best ways of treating wounds and trauma, and also learned how important good hygiene practices are.

He reduced the death rate among gladiators dramatically, winning the admiration of the High Priest. Roman Surgical Instruments. Throughout his life Galen enjoyed nothing more than a good rant at anyone who practiced medicine in ways he disagreed with — the rants became a feature of his written work.

Medicine in ancient Rome - Wikipedia

In A. Galen was a prolific author, and much of what he described he owed to earlier Greek physicians, such as Hippocrates , Herophilos, Celsus, Alcmaeon, Praxagoras, Herophilos, Erasistratus and Asclepiades. Galen mentioned earlier physicians by name in his books, helping preserve their names in history, because it is through Galen that we learn about the discoveries some of these earlier scientists and physicians made.

He took the earlier work and compared it with his own experimental and practical findings. If he could confirm their work, he would use it; otherwise, he would criticize it, and say why it was wrong. He had an absolute belief in the power of experiment and observation. He did not believe in merely following what books had told him. He needed to verify the truth for himself. In Europe the fall of Rome was followed by the dark ages.